INTRODUCTION • Open Access • Types of article • Invited article types • Contact details for submission • Submission checklist • Podcasts BEFORE YOU BEGIN • Ethics in publishing • Studies in humans and animals • Informed consent and patient details • Declaration of competing interest

Journal of ISAKOS (JISAKOS) is the official, open access journal of the International Society of Arthroscopy, Knee surgery and Orthopaedic Sports Medicine (see the Open Access section below for details on article processing charges). The journal publishes high-quality peer-reviewed review and research articles, on important topics that serve to engage and advance the knowledge and treatment of musculoskeletal diseases and disorders among specialists and other interested health professionals.

Key fields of interest include:

• Orthopaedic sports medicine
• Sports traumatology
• Arthroscopy
• Degenerative joint disease
• Arthroplasty
• Sports injury rehabilitation
• Team coverage

The journal is Medline indexed and has been accepted by Clarivate into the Emerging Sources Citation Index for future calculation of a journal impact factor. The editorial team is dedicated to providing rapid publication of research through the journal's continuous online publication model

Open Access

This journal will move from a subscription to a gold open access publishing model. Articles submitted or under review from August 1, 2021 will be published open access and this journal will make the author's work immediately, permanently, and freely accessible. Authors submitting to the journal on or after August 1 2021 will be expected to cover the cost of the Article Publishing Charge (APC) to publish in the journal, will have a choice of license options and will retain copyright to their published work. Permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses.

The open access fee for this journal is $750 for case reports and article types requiring 2,500 words or less, and$1500 for research and review articles, and article types requiring 3,000 to 6,000 words, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy.

For more information on Article Processing Charges, including discounts and waivers, see our Author APC Guide. For a limited time, Corresponding Authors who are ISAKOS members will receive a 100% discount on the article publication charge. To learn about becoming a member, please visit: ISAKOS Membership Application.

Types of article

Original Article

JISAKOS publishes original research on surgical and/or non-surgical interventions, diagnostic procedures, rehabilitation, prevention and other topics in the journal's key fields of interest.

An original article is about 3,000 words long (excluding abstract, figure captions, tables and references) and includes up to 50 references. The maximum number of tables and/or figures is six.

Additional data may be presented as supplementary information, which will be published online at the time of on-line publication.

Title

The title should contain a concluding statement on the primary finding of the study, expressing the most important finding of this study according to the author.

Abstract (structured)
The abstract is up to 350 words. It contains as headings Objectives, Methods, Results, Conclusion and the level of evidence according to Table 1.

For certain studies, like but not limited to laboratory experiments and model simulations, the level-of-evidence statement does not apply.

Mandatory Text Box
A text box, titled "What are the new findings", should follow the abstract and contains 3-4 bullet points summarizing the new findings.

Main body
The paper contains the sections Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion and Conclusion.

A short introduction suffices if the rationale of the study is obvious, i.e. it may be as short as 3 short paragraphs if that addresses "Why the study was performed". An extensive literature review will not be accepted.

The use of subheadings in the methods, results and discussion is encouraged, thereby itemizing different aspects of each respective section.

Checklist
A relevant reporting checklist must be completed and uploaded.

The checklist to be used depends on the kind of research reported. If your manuscript does not belong to any below then a checklist is not required.

CHEERS ( https://www.ispor.org/heor-resources/good-practices-for-outcomes-research/article/consolidated-health-economic-evaluation-reporting-standards-(cheers)---explanation-and-elaboration) - Economic evaluations

CONSORT (http://www.consort-statement.org/) - Randomised controlled trials

STARD (http://www.equator-network.org/reporting-guidelines/stard/) - Diagnostic accuracy studies

STROBE (https://www.strobe-statement.org/index.php?id=strobe-home) - Observational studies

Systematic Review

JISAKOS publishes systematic reviews on surgical and/or non-surgical interventions and on diagnostic methods in the journal's key fields of interest. The review should be conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines (http://www.prisma-statement.org/).

Generally, systematic reviews are 4,000 words (excluding abstract, figure captions, tables and references) and will have 75-100 references. Authors should attempt to synthesise results either quantitatively or qualitatively.

Title
The title should contain a concluding statement on the primary finding of the review followed by either "a systematic review" or "a meta-analysis".

Abstract (structured)
Importance

• Include one or two sentences describing the clinical question or issue and its importance in clinical practice or public health.

Aim or Objective
• State the precise primary objective of the review. Indicate whether the review emphasizes factors such as cause, diagnosis, prognosis, therapy, or prevention and include information about the specific population, intervention, exposure, and tests or outcomes that are being reviewed.

Evidence Review
• Describe the information sources used, including summary of the search strategies, years searched, and other sources of material, such as subsequent reference searches of retrieved articles. Methods used for quality assessment and inclusion of identified articles should be explained. Describe the methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis of the data retrieved from the articles.

Findings
• The major findings of the review of the clinical issue or topic should be addressed in an evidence-based, objective, and balanced fashion, with the highest quality evidence available receiving the greatest emphasis.

Conclusions and Relevance
• The conclusions should clearly answer the questions posed if applicable, be based on available evidence, and emphasize how clinicians should apply current knowledge.

Level of Evidence
• Add the level of evidence according to Table 1.

Bullet points
Immediately following the abstract add a text box containing two sets of bullet points. Be clear and specific in formulating the bullet points. The total maximum number of bullet points is six.

1. Title: "What is already known"

Contents

One or two single sentence bullet points to summarize what is already known about the subject before this review commenced and what has necessitated this review.

2. Title: "What are the new findings"

Contents

Two to four bullet points summarizing what the new findings are based on the results of the review or meta-analysis.'

The body of the manuscript should contain the headers Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion and Conclusion.

PRISMA checklist
For the introduction, methods, results and discussion use the PRISMA checklist as a reference. The PRISMA checklist (http://prisma-statement.org/documents/PRISMA%202009%20checklist.pdf) should be uploaded.

PRISMA flow diagram
Include a flow diagram according to the PRISMA guidelines depicting the flow of information through the different phases of a systematic review. It maps out the number of records identified, included and excluded, and the reasons for exclusions. The PRISMA document can be used for this (http://prisma-statement.org/prismastatement/flowdiagram.aspx). The flow diagram should be submitted in editable format as Microsoft Word document.

Case Report

A Case Report describes a single unusual or special case from which a lesson is learnt. It is a clinical observation from daily practice. A case report should teach us what is unknown and which discloses the unrecognised. A case report should stand alone and be convincing. Case series are not considered. Up to three similar cases are allowed, if these additional cases add to the particular issue that is addressed by the case report.

JISAKOS wishes to publish cases that stimulate discussion and even dispute, cases with clinical significance, whether diagnostic, or ethical, or therapeutic; cases that deal with decision making or management or cases that shed light on injury mechanisms. Above all cases that show something new or puzzling.

The maximum number of authors is four and should include at least one author that was medically responsible for the patient(s) described. Individuals involved in the patient's care but did not contribute to the scientific analysis of the case and the writing of the manuscript can be listed in the acknowledgements.

A paper should be about 2,500 words (excluding abstract, text boxes, figure captions, tables and references) and include up to 30 references. It should include an unstructured abstract of no more than 350 words. The maximum number of tables is three. The number of figures and/or illustrations is limited to the number that is logically required to illustrate the case. After submission of the manuscript, the editor may instruct the authors to reduce the number of figures/illustrations. Additional figures/illustrations, slide shows, videos and/or animations can be submitted for on-line publication.

The patient(s) described in the case report should be fully anonymized. Patient characteristics, clinical data and clinical images should be modified such that these cannot be traced back to the particular individual. The authors should fully comply with the policy on patient consent and confidentiality (Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals)

A Case Report must include the following:

Title
The title should contain a brief description of the case followed by ": case report".

Abstract (unstructured)
Short description of the most relevant characteristics of the presentation of the case, the diagnostics, intervention and outcome with a summary of the critical analysis of how it relates to current practice. Describe the lesson(s) learnt. The abstract should be complete, concise and attractive to read.

Mandatory Text Boxes
Directly following the abstract, include two text boxes:

1. Title: "The case"

Contents

This box contains 3 to 5 bullet points with the major issues of the presentation of the case, the intervention and the outcome.

2. Title: "Lesson(s) learnt"

Contents

This box contains 1 or 2 bullet points describing the lesson(s) learnt from the analysis of the case.

Body of the Article
Introduction
• Brief description of how the patient was presented and how the problem deviated from general practice or current approaches
• Reasoning of why it is a special case that requires attention.
• Provide a concise overview of the literature as to make clear that this has never been published before. Mention your search strategy.

The case
Use logical sub headers to separate the different sub sections.
• Full detailed (relevant) medical history and clinical description
• Physical examination(s)
• Additional examination(s) (lab, imaging etc.)
• Diagnosis
• Intervention(s)
• Outcome(s)

Discussion
• Summarise clinical problem and the key issues of the case described.
• Discuss the issues in view of the current literature.
• Describe the potential relative to the current approaches with references to relevant publications.

For on-line publication additional figures or illustrations, a slide show, animation and/or video can be uploaded.

CARE guidelines
The case report should be drafted according to the CARE guidelines for case reports. The CARE checklist is to be uploaded at the time of submission of the manuscript (https://www.care-statement.org/checklist).

Technical Note - Video Article

Authors are encouraged to submit a video article. These articles will include:
? a video that is no larger than 200 MB, or longer than five minutes
? a title page
?abstract and
? text box.
Authors must provide an unstructured abstract using no more than 200 words. No more than ten references are allowed. There are two video technique submission categories:
?current techniques and,
?novel techniques.
Current techniques are those that are readily established in orthopaedic practice with published mid- to long-term outcomes.Novel techniques are those that have not previously been published and aim to provide an entirely new surgical technique or a significant modification of a prior surgical technique (new positioning, approach, procedure, or implant class).

Guidelines for either submission and accompanying example video are available as follows:

Submission Format:

Guidelines for a NOVEL technique

1. Written part of the Novel technique (maximum 1000 words)
• Title: attractive and succinct, including the following:
• Approach: open or arthroscopic
• Location: shoulder, elbow, hip, knee, ankle, etc.
• Technique name
• Authors: names and titles
• +/- Institutional affiliations
• Abstract: Brief summary detailing the key points and novelty of the technique and issues not addressed by current techniques
• Text Boxes: Two mandatory text boxes. Title = Title of the operative procedure. The first text box contains bullet points describing the novelty of the new technique. The second text box describes the advantages and disadvantages of the new technique.
• Technique Structure:
1. Outline of the clinical problem: patho-anatomy, biomechanical studies etc.
2. Treatment options (operative and nonoperative, if applicable)
3. Surgical indications/contraindications
4. Current surgical techniques
6. Outcome of the novel technique with a minimum of 6 month follow-up after the intervention of a case series (Individual cases may be considered upon further request)
7. Conclusion and future perspectives

2. Video Portion of the Novel Technique (5-7 minutes):
• Videos should be organized in the following order with all aspects highlighted with text slides in the video (numbers 1-6 and 8-11) and clearly narrated:
1. Standard slide: JISAKOS Video Library Novel Technique Collection
2. Technique title and authors with respective affiliations
3. Author disclosures
4. Surgical Indications
5. Surgical Contraindications
6. Imaging / Preoperative Planning (XR)
7. Imaging / Preoperative Planning (MRI)
8. Preoperative Preparation - Anesthesia (general, block, etc), adjunct medications (tranexamic acid [TXA], decadron, etc.), antibiotics
9. Surgical Positioning
10. Portal Placement (for arthroscopic cases)
11. Surgical Technique: including positioning, approach, step by step technique highlighting critical steps, and closure
• This should all be done in a focused video clearly showing the operative field (or pictures of positioning and surgical ergonomics) with simultaneous or sequential arthroscopic footage as appropriate
• Mention positioning changes during the technique where applicable
• Mention viewing and working portals for arthroscopy
13. Postoperative Care and Rehabilitation: analgesia, bracing, DVT prophylaxis, HO prophylaxis, physical therapy, etc.
15. Standard Slide: This video is part of the JISAKOS Video Library and technique name

Guidelines for a CURRENT technique

1. Written part of the Current technique (maximum 1000 words)

• Title: attractive and succinct, including the following:
• Approach: open or arthroscopic
• Location: shoulder, elbow, hip, knee, ankle, etc.
• Technique name
• Authors: names and titles
• +/- Institutional affiliations
• Abstract: Brief summary detailing surgical indications, critical aspects of the technique, and overall outcomes
• Text Box: One mandatory text box. Title = Title of the operative procedure. This box contains bullet points summarizing the current techniques as outlined in the technique structure
• Technique Structure
1. Outline of the clinical problem: patho-anatomy, biomechanical studies etc.
2. Surgical indications/contraindications
3. Treatment options (operative and nonoperative, if applicable)
4. Outcomes of the technique: Mid- and/or Long-term outcome (overview of the literature or at least mentioning the outcomes of landmark articles on the technique)
5. Complications
6. Conclusion and future perspectives

2. Video Portion of the Current Technique (5-7 minutes):
• Videos should be organized in the following order with all aspects highlighted with text slides in the video (1-6 and 8-11) and clearly narrated:
1. Standard slide: JISAKOS Video Library Current Technique Collection
2. Technique title and authors with respective affiliations
3. Author disclosures
4. Surgical Indications
5. Surgical Contraindications
6. Imaging / Preoperative Planning (XR)
7. Imaging / Preoperative Planning (MRI)
8. Preoperative Preparation - Anesthesia (general, block, etc), adjunct medications (tranexamic acid [TXA], decadron, etc.), antibiotics
9. Surgical Positioning
10. Portal Placement (for arthroscopic cases)
11. Surgical Technique: including positioning, approach, step by step technique highlighting critical steps, and closure
• This should all be done in a focused video clearly showing the operative field (or pictures of positioning and surgical ergonomics) with simultaneous or sequential arthroscopic footage as appropriate
• Mention positioning changes during the technique where applicable
• Mention viewing and working portals for arthroscopy
12. Postoperative Care and Rehabilitation: analgesia, bracing, DVT prophylaxis, HO prophylaxis, physical therapy, etc.
14. Standard Slide: This video is part of the JISAKOS Video Library and technique name

Letter to the Editor

Letters to the editor are usually fewer than 500 words and offer a viewpoint or experience about a manuscript previously published in Journal of ISAKOS. The letter should be appropriately referenced, and clearly state questions or comments from the author(s). There is a limit of 3 authors and a maximum of 15 references. Authors are required to sign and send a conflict of interest statement at the time of submission.

Invited article types

State-of-the-Art Review

A State-of-the-Art Review is invited by the Editor-in-Chief with input from the Editorial Board. It is generally written by a three-author team, with authors drawn from three major regions of the world, to ensure a truly global perspective. The author team can be supplemented by a fourth author that assists in drafting the manuscript.

A State-of-the-Art review contains statements of current knowledge, practice and evidence, with references to relevant and recent papers as well as detailed descriptions of surgical techniques, patient management strategies, and/or diagnostic methods as appropriate.

At the end of each State-of-the-Art Review, authors describe the future perspectives on the development of diagnosis and treatment, given the best available evidence. Authors then elaborate on the basic and applied research required and provide a statement on where the field will be three to five years.

Papers should be about 6,000 words (excluding abstract, figure captions, tables, text boxes and references) and include up to 100 references. Papers should include an unstructured abstract of no more than 350 words. You should include as many illustrative boxes and tables as necessary. Boxes are not cited within text, but tables are cited. Boxes can include pearls and pitfalls and any other information that is important to call attention to the reader. Likewise, authors are encouraged to include as many figures as necessary to convey the article's topic.

Title
The title should contain the topic followed by ": state of the art".

All State-of-the-Art articles must include the following:

Abstract (Unstructured)
• Clinical problem statement, current diagnostic and therapeutic methods, geographic variations, available evidence, current unsolved issues, future perspectives
• The abstract should be complete, concise and attractive to read

Introduction
• Outline of the clinical problem, and the societal impact
• References to previous reviews, state-of-the-art or current concepts articles
• Key information on the topic represented in a figure or table

Body
• Informative subheadings to separate different topics and subtopics
• Topic or subtopics that require particular attention can be supplemented by a text box. A text box should be read and understood without referring to the main body of text
• Figures illustrating (special) diagnostic procedures and/or surgical techniques with explanatory text are preferred over text-only descriptions.
• Attention should be paid to geographical differences and the (possible) explanations for these. This can be done in a separate section

Mandatory Text Boxes

1. Title: "Key articles"*

Contents

A list of the ten key articles representing the historic evolution on the topic as identified by the authors.

2. Title: "Validated outcome measures and classifications"*

Contents

Validated outcome measures that apply to the topics described in the article. Indicate the ones that are ISAKOS approved or preferred by the authors.

3. Title: "Key issues of patient selection"

Contents

Key issues for the particular treatment(s)

4. Title: "Essential and/or typical features of [the medical device(s) and/or imaging device(s) and/or measurement device(s) and/or diagnostic/surgical procedures]"

Contents

If applicable, describe the essential and/or typical features of the medical devices (tools, implants, biomaterial etc.), imaging and measurement devices and/or diagnostic/surgical procedures that are applied. Include the criteria for the selection of these. Additionally, the rationale for the diversity of medical devices and diagnostic procedures should be addressed

5. Title: "Tips & tricks"*

Contents

Tips and tricks on the main surgical, diagnostic, and/or rehabilitation procedures described in the article

6. Title: "Major pitfalls of [topic(s)]"

Contents

The major pitfalls of the techniques and/or procedures described in the article

* Box title can be supplemented by additional explanatory text, as for example the topic covered by the information in the box.

Future Perspectives (Conclusion)
• Recap the best available evidence and describe future perspectives on the development of diagnosis and treatment. Elaborate on the basic and applied research that is required. Include information on where the field will be in three to five years
• Include a text box, table or figure to highlight the future perspectives, such that it can be read and understood without reading the main body of text.

Current-Concepts Review

A Current Concepts Review is invited by the Editor-in-Chief with input from the Editorial Board.

A Current-Concepts review addresses a single issue of an intervention or a diagnostic procedure for a certain condition. It contains statements of current knowledge, practice and recent evidence, with references to relevant papers as well as detailed descriptions of surgical techniques, patient management strategies, and/or diagnostic methods as appropriate.

At the end of the Current-Concepts Review, authors conclude on the current best practice based on the best available evidence and describe what is required for better supporting the technical choices in the future.

A paper should be about 2,500 words (excluding abstract, figure captions, tables and references) and include up to 50 references. It should include an unstructured abstract of no more than 350 words. The number of tables and figures is limited to eight.

Title
The title should contain the topic addressed followed by ": current concepts".

A Current-Concepts article must include the following:

Abstract (unstructured)Clinical problem statement, current diagnostic and therapeutic methods, available evidence and current unsolved issues.

The abstract should be complete, concise and attractive to read.

Mandatory Text Boxes
Include two text boxes:

1. Title: "Current Concepts"

Contents

This box contains maximally four bullet points describing the current concepts as described in the article.

2. Title: "Future perspectives"

Contents

Describe future perspectives on the topic of the article. Elaborate on the research that is required to reach the formulated goals.

Introduction
• Outline of the clinical problem
• References to previous reviews, state-of-the-art and/or current concepts articles

Body
• Include informative subheadings to separate different subtopics
• Figures illustrating (special) diagnostic procedures and/or surgical techniques or other interventions with explanatory text are preferred over text-only descriptions.

Discussion
• Summarise the major issues and solutions
• Discuss the current (lack of) evidence
• If applicable, describe alternative approaches with references to relevant publications
• Discuss the future perspectives

The on-line version of the Current-Concepts article may contain supplemental material, like descriptions, photos and materials detailing the specific procedures as described in the article.

The Classic

The Classic takes a historical approach to a major concept or technique, with abundant references to the literature. This article type puts classic ideas into current perspective, whether they are now central to orthopaedics or have receded into lesser utility. This article is approximately 4,500-5,000 words in length and includes maximally 100 references.

The Classic describes the content of the article, with reference to the original source, thus integrating summary, text samples, figures or tables of the original article in consideration of the historic perspective, and the impact of the article on the course of history.

The classic articles must include the following:

Title
The title constructed as follows: Review of [Family name(s) of original author(s)] on [title or summary of title or title highlights]

Abstract
The abstract starts with "This classic discusses the original publication [Original Reference] on [one- to two-line summary of The Classic]", followed by a summary of the introduction and consideration

Body of the Article
Introduction
• Description of the classic article and the rationale for selecting this as The Classic topic
• Text box containing a summary of the classic (maximum 350 words)

Consideration
• Historic perspective
• Scientific and societal impact
• Current evidence as related to the original article
• The lesson(s) learned

Optional Text Boxes
• Add text boxes containing the summary of any personal communications like an interview, comments and/or quote(s) from the original (co)author(s) or other individuals. These text boxes should be short and contain no more than 300 words.

Editor's Note
• At the discretion of the Editor-in-Chief, at the end of the article an additional box with the Editor's note will be added. This can be a comment from the Editor-in-Chief or a comment from a member of the Editorial Board. This will be done after acceptation of the manuscript.

Consensus Statement Article

JISAKOS publishes consensus statement articles, primarily the outcomes from symposium consensus groups, on surgical and/or non-surgical interventions, diagnostic procedures, rehabilitation, prevention and other topics in the journal's key fields of interest.

A consensus statement is about 6,000 words long (excluding figure captions, tables and references) and includes up to 100 references. The maximum number of tables and/or figures is six.

Additional data may be presented as supplementary information, which will be published online at the time of on-line publication.

Title
The title should contain a concluding statement on the primary outcome of the consensus group, expressing the most important consensus according to the group.

Abstract (structured)
The abstract is up to 350 words. It contains as headings Objectives, Methods, Results, and Conclusion. The level of consensus achieved should be included.

Mandatory Text Box
A text box, titled "What are the new findings", should follow the abstract and contains up to 6 bullet points summarizing the main new findings from the group.

Main body
The paper contains the sections Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion and Conclusion. Each consensus statement should include a conclusion.

The use of subheadings in the methods, results and discussion is encouraged, thereby itemizing different aspects of each respective section.

Checklist
A relevant reporting checklist must be completed and uploaded.

The checklist to be used depends on the kind of research reported. If your manuscript does not belong to any below then a checklist is not required.

https://www.ideal-collaboration.net/
http://www.squire-statement.org/
https://www.processguideline.com/

Contact details for submission

If you would like to contact the editorial office regarding a submission: leendertblankevoort@jisakos.com

Submission checklist

You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.

Ensure that the following items are present:

One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:

All necessary files have been uploaded:
Manuscript:
• Include keywords
• All figures (include relevant captions)
• All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)
• Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
• Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print
Graphical Abstracts / Highlights files (where applicable)
Supplemental files (where applicable)

Further considerations
• Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
• A competing interests statement is provided, even if the authors have no competing interests to declare
• Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed
• Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements

Podcasts

All accepted papers will be featured in a journal podcast. Authors will receive an invitation for a zoom interview from the editors.

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information on Ethics in publishing.

Studies in humans and animals

If the work involves the use of human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans. The manuscript should be in line with the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals and aim for the inclusion of representative human populations (sex, age and ethnicity) as per those recommendations. The terms sex and gender should be used correctly.

Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

All animal experiments should comply with the ARRIVE guidelines and should be carried out in accordance with the U.K. Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986 and associated guidelines, EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments, or the National Research Council's Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals and the authors should clearly indicate in the manuscript that such guidelines have been followed. The sex of animals must be indicated, and where appropriate, the influence (or association) of sex on the results of the study.

Informed consent and patient details

Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. Written consents must be retained by the author but copies should not be provided to the journal. Only if specifically requested by the journal in exceptional circumstances (for example if a legal issue arises) the author must provide copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals. Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.

Declaration of competing interest

Corresponding authors, on behalf of all the authors of a submission, must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. All authors, including those without competing interests to declare, should provide the relevant information to the corresponding author (which, where relevant, may specify they have nothing to declare). Corresponding authors should then use this tool to create a shared statement and upload to the submission system at the Attach Files step. Please do not convert the .docx template to another file type. Author signatures are not required.

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify compliance, your article may be checked by Crossref Similarity Check and other originality or duplicate checking software.

Preprints

Please note that preprints can be shared anywhere at any time, in line with Elsevier's sharing policy. Sharing your preprints e.g. on a preprint server will not count as prior publication (see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information).

Use of inclusive language

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. When coding terminology is used, we recommend to avoid offensive or exclusionary terms such as "master", "slave", "blacklist" and "whitelist". We suggest using alternatives that are more appropriate and (self-) explanatory such as "primary", "secondary", "blocklist" and "allowlist". These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.

Contributors

Each author is required to declare their individual contribution to the article: all authors must have materially participated in the research and/or article preparation, so roles for all authors should be described. The statement that all authors have approved the final article should be true and included in the disclosure.

Authorship

All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted.

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Article Transfer Service

This journal is part of our Article Transfer Service. This means that if the Editor feels your article is more suitable in one of our other participating journals, then you may be asked to consider transferring the article to one of those. If you agree, your article will be transferred automatically on your behalf with no need to reformat. Please note that your article will be reviewed again by the new journal. More information.

Clinical trial results

In line with the position of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, the journal will not consider results posted in the same clinical trials registry in which primary registration resides to be prior publication if the results posted are presented in the form of a brief structured (less than 500 words) abstract or table. However, divulging results in other circumstances (e.g., investors' meetings) is discouraged and may jeopardise consideration of the manuscript. Authors should fully disclose all posting in registries of results of the same or closely related work.

Registration of clinical trials

Registration in a public trials registry is a condition for publication of clinical trials in this journal in accordance with International Committee of Medical Journal Editors recommendations. Trials must register at or before the onset of patient enrolment. The clinical trial registration number should be included at the end of the abstract of the article. A clinical trial is defined as any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects of health outcomes. Health-related interventions include any intervention used to modify a biomedical or health-related outcome (for example drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioural treatments, dietary interventions, and process-of-care changes). Health outcomes include any biomedical or health-related measures obtained in patients or participants, including pharmacokinetic measures and adverse events. Purely observational studies (those in which the assignment of the medical intervention is not at the discretion of the investigator) will not require registration.

Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'License Agreement' (see more information on this). Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.

Author rights

Elsevier supports responsible sharing

Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement, it is recommended to state this.

Open access

Researcher Academy is a free e-learning platform designed to support early and mid-career researchers throughout their research journey. The "Learn" environment at Researcher Academy offers several interactive modules, webinars, downloadable guides and resources to guide you through the process of writing for research and going through peer review. Feel free to use these free resources to improve your submission and navigate the publication process with ease.

Language (usage and editing services)

Please write your text in good British English. Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop.

Submission

Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Peer review

This journal operates a double anonymized review process. All contributions are typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. Editors are not involved in decisions about papers which they have written themselves or have been written by family members or colleagues or which relate to products or services in which the editor has an interest. Any such submission is subject to all of the journal's usual procedures, with peer review handled independently of the relevant editor and their research groups. More information on types of peer review.

JISAKOS peer reviews all manuscripts externally or internally. For external review, JISAKOS selects two or more reviewers from a database of experts. For internal review, members of the Editorial Board will review the paper. Once the reviews are received, JISAKOS makes a decision to accept or reject a manuscript or to request revisions in response to the reviewers' comments.

Use of word processing software

It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Article structure

Subdivision - unnumbered sections

Divide your article into clearly defined sections. Each subsection is given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line. Subsections should be used as much as possible when cross-referencing text: refer to the subsection by heading as opposed to simply 'the text'.

Appendices

If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.

Essential title page information

• Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible. Check the additional title requirement for each article type.
• Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. You can add your name between parentheses in your own script behind the English transliteration. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
• Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. This responsibility includes answering any future queries about Methodology and Materials. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
• Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

Abstract

A concise and factual abstract is required. Check the abstract instruction for each article type. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.

Keywords

Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using British spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes. . For maximum discoverability of your research we recommend using https://meshb.nlm.nih.gov/MeSHonDemand

Acknowledgements

Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

Formatting of funding sources

List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:

Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

If no funding has been provided for the research, it is recommended to include the following sentence:

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Units

Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.

Footnotes

Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors can build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Otherwise, please indicate the position of footnotes in the text and list the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.

Artwork

Electronic artwork

General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
• Ensure that color images are accessible to all, including those with impaired color vision.

A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
Formats
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork

Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF) or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites). Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.

Figure captions

Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

Tables

Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules and shading in table cells.

References

Citation in text

Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, Crossref and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is highly encouraged.

A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JB000884. Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.

Web references

As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

Data references

This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

Preprint references

Where a preprint has subsequently become available as a peer-reviewed publication, the formal publication should be used as the reference. If there are preprints that are central to your work or that cover crucial developments in the topic, but are not yet formally published, these may be referenced. Preprints should be clearly marked as such, for example by including the word preprint, or the name of the preprint server, as part of the reference. The preprint DOI should also be provided.

References in a special issue

Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

A DOI is a unique string created to identify a piece of intellectual property in an online environment and is particularly useful for articles that are published online before appearing in print (and, therefore, have not yet been assigned the traditional volume, issue and page number references). The DOI is a permanent identifier of all versions of an article, whether raw manuscript or edited proof, online or in print. Thus, the DOI should ideally be included in the citation even if you want to cite a print version of an article.

How to cite articles with a DOI before they have appeared in print 1. Alwick K, Vronken M, de Mos T, et al. Cardiac risk factors: prospective cohort study. Ann Rheum Dis Published Online First: 5 February 2004. doi:10.1136/ard.2003.001234

How to cite articles with a DOI once they have appeared in print 1. Vole P, Smith H, Brown N, et al. Treatments for malaria: randomised controlled trial. Ann Rheum Dis 2003;327:765-8 doi:10.1136/ard.2003.001234 [published Online First: 5 February 2002].

PLEASE NOTE: RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE ACCURACY AND COMPLETENESS OF REFERENCES RESTS ENTIRELY WITH THE AUTHOR.

Reference style

Text: Indicate references by number(s) in square brackets in line with the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.
List: Number the references (numbers in square brackets) in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.
Examples:
Reference to a journal publication:
[1] Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun 2010;163:51–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.Sc.2010.00372.
Reference to a journal publication with an article number:
[2] Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. Heliyon. 2018;19:e00205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e00205
Reference to a book:
[3] Strunk Jr W, White EB. The elements of style. 4th ed. New York: Longman; 2000.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
[4] Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, editors. Introduction to the electronic age, New York: E-Publishing Inc; 2009, p. 281–304.
Reference to a website:
[5] Cancer Research UK. Cancer statistics reports for the UK, http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/aboutcancer/statistics/cancerstatsreport/; 2003 [accessed 13 March 2003].
Reference to a dataset:
[dataset] [6] Oguro M, Imahiro S, Saito S, Nakashizuka T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015. https://doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1.
Note shortened form for last page number. e.g., 51–9, and that for more than 6 authors the first 6 should be listed followed by 'et al.' For further details you are referred to 'Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals' (J Am Med Assoc 1997;277:927–34) (see also Samples of Formatted References).

Journal abbreviations source

Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations.

Video

Supplementary material

Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version.

If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.

For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.

In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

Availability of accepted article

This journal makes articles available online as soon as possible after acceptance. This concerns the Journal Pre-proofs (both in HTML and PDF format), which have undergone enhancements after acceptance, such as the addition of a cover page and metadata, and formatting for readability, but are not yet the definitive versions of record. A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is allocated, thereby making it fully citable and searchable by title, author name(s) and the full text. The article's PDF also carries a disclaimer stating that it is an unedited article. Subsequent production stages will simply replace this version.

Online proof correction

To ensure a fast publication process of the article, we kindly ask authors to provide us with their proof corrections within two days. Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.

Offprints

The corresponding author will be notified and receive a link to the published version of the open access article on ScienceDirect. This link is in the form of an article DOI link which can be shared via email and social networks. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Author Services.

Visit the Elsevier Support Center to find the answers you need. Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to ways to get in touch.
You can also check the status of your submitted article or find out when your accepted article will be published.