Rebranding the ‘anatomic’ ACL reconstruction: Current conceptsThe anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a complex ribbon-like structure, which is approximately 3.5 times larger at the tibial and femoral insertions than at the midpoint. Accordingly, it is impossible to recreate with a single cylindrical graft. However, this has not stopped surgeons from using the term “anatomic” to describe multiple ACL reconstruction techniques inserting at a number of different locations within the original ACL footprint, causing confusion. The term “anatomic” should be discarded and replaced by an anatomic description of the tunnel placements on the tibia and femur.
Combined anterolateral complex and anterior cruciate ligament injury: Anatomy, biomechanics, and management—State-of-the-artAnterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture typically occurs because of sudden axial loading of the knee in conjunction with a coupled valgus and rotational moment about the tibia. However, the ACL is not the only structure damaged during this mechanism of injury, and studies have shown that the anterolateral complex (ALC) of the knee is also commonly involved. Biomechanical studies have established that the ALC plays an important role as a secondary stabiliser to control anterolateral rotatory laxity (ALRL).
Arthroscopic biological internal bracing with remnant repair for subacute ACL femoral avulsionsArthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction predictably restores sagittal plane knee stability, however its inability to replicate a complex fan-shaped ligament of multiple fascicles, along with deficient restoration of normal rotational knee kinematics, results in failure to reverse a high risk for premature post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Although arthroscopic repair for acute ACL femoral avulsions is proposed to counter these deficiencies, the risk of early failure following non-healing, along with lack of convincing evidence of efficacy has impeded its universal acceptance.
Short graft anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: Current conceptsShort graft anterior cruciate igament reconstruction is increasing in popularity for performing a primary ACLR. The short graft coupled with the all-inside technique using closed sockets and suspensory fixation at both femoral and tibial ends are its defining features. The outcomes of this technique have been comparable to well established transportal ACLR techniques. It has the benefits of preserved hamstring strength and less pain attributed to transtibial drilling. However, there is a learning curve involved and will require time before mastery of the technique.
Navigation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: State of the artComputer navigation (CN) for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery has been used mainly for two purposes: to enhance the accuracy of tunnel position and to evaluate the kinematics of the ACL reconstruction (ACLR) and the stability achieved by different surgical techniques. Many studies have shown that navigation may improve the accuracy of anatomical tunnel orientation and position during ACL reconstructive surgery compared with normal arthroscopic tunnel placement, especially regarding the femoral side.
Anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: Freddie Fu's paradigmAnterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction techniques have evolved over the past four decades. There is evidence that non-anatomic reconstruction techniques, such as traditional transtibial drilling, fail to recreate the native anatomy of the ACL, which can lead to increased rotatory knee instability, revision risk, and post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Anatomic ACL reconstruction has emerged as the gold standard, with the goal of restoring the patient's native anatomy and knee kinematics. This review will summarise the relevant anatomy, modern anatomic ACL reconstruction techniques, and literature supporting anatomic ACL reconstruction as the new paradigm.
Anatomical hamstring tendons ACL reconstruction with the “linking rings” techniqueHamstring tendons (HTs) are one of the most commonly used autografts for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR). However, the tendon-to-bone healing of the HTs grafts within the bone tunnels has always been a concern. Periosteum contains pluripotent stem cells with osteogenic and chondrogenic potential which can allow a direct, stronger and faster healing of the HTs graft within the bone tunnels. In this technical note, we present a modification of anatomical ACLR with the semitendinosus tendon (ST) graft and periosteum augmentation using the “linking rings” technique.